Write precis of the following and suggest a suitable title.

The fear of human beings when faced with the mysterious of life and their weakness by comparison with the vastness of nature created in them a need to communicate with the divine, the superior powers which they believed regulated the universe and determined their own fates. Knowledge of wishes of the gods was always a sure guide for human behavior. In ancient Greece, the precise nature of the wishes was 'decoded' by the art of giving oracles, practiced by soothsayers who had the gin of understanding the signs or signals sent by the gods.

        The soothsayers uttered their oracles by interpreting flashes of lightening, rolls of thunder or the flights of certain birds of prey (omens); alternatively, they might observe the direction in which the fire burned when a sacrifice was made, examine the entails of animals which had just been sacrificed, or base judgements on the sacrificial beast's willingness to approach the altar. The interpretation of dreams was popular too, and so was palmistry. The most notable soothsayers of ancient Greece were Tiresias, Calchas, Helenus, Amphiaraus and Cassandra.

          However, there were abundant instances in which the gods did not manifest themselves to the faithful in the forms of signs but spoke directly to an intermediate who for a short time was overcome by a 'divine mania' and transcended his own human essence. Here the prophet- or more usually the prophetess - entered a state of ecstasy in which he or she delivered the message from the gods to the suppliants.

          These practices for foreseeing the future  were the basis on which the ancient Greek oracles operated. Each oracle was located within a properly-organized sanctuary and was directly associated with one or other of the gods. Apollo was the archetypal soothsayer for the Greeks, the god who was responsible for conveying to mortals the decisions pronounced by Zeus. The most important of all the oracles, that at the Delphi, delivered  the messages with the intervention of Apollo, while the oldest that of Dodona, functioned with the assistance of Zeus. 

Title : Oracles : The voice of Greek gods

To resolve the mystery of life  and overcome their fear, human beings tried to communicate with the divine powers that were believed to control their fate and universe. In ancient Greece, the soothsayers performed the job of interpreting the signs from the gods whether the ofFerings were accepted or not. However, the signs were not sometimes clear, so the oracles became the voice of the gods who delivered the message verbally in state of ecstasy. Hence, the oracles were consulted to see the future consequently, different temples were reserved for oracles to communicate on behalf of the gods one such was Apollo, the Greek god. Who delivered the messages of Zeus via its oracles at Delphi.

Question no 5 (a) :

Punctuate the following text where necessary ?

Unfortunately  we often miss a basic school lesson every big task consists of several small ones done precisely and perfectly as a nation we acutely need to learn the art of breaking down our moonlit goals into small accomplishable tasks it will reduce frustration anxiety depression in society and embarrassment for the government machinery too as they don't have to defend their unkept promises.

Unfortunately,  we often miss a basic school lesson: every big task consists of several small ones, done precisely and perfectly. As a nation, we acutely need to learn the art of breaking down our moonlit goals into small accomplishable tasks. It will reduce frustration, anxiety, depression in society and embarrassment for the government machinery, too, as they don't have to defend their unkept promise.

Question no 5 (b) :

Rewrite the following sentences (only five) after fillling in the blanks with appropriate prepositions.

  1. Despite regular practice he never seems to win at tennis.
  2. With luck, we should be in Islamabad by 5 p.m.
  3. He went of his own accord: nobody forced him to go. 
  4. My husband brought me some flowers today. He must be after something.
  5. My younger son tripped over the cat and fell downstairs.
  6. You look really under  the weather. Are you ill?
  7. The car went over the brow of the hill and was soon out of sight.
  8. He told that his career was in ruins because of pandemic.

Question no 7 :

Translate  the following into English by keeping in view figurative/idiomatic expression.

Every age brings those challenges which, despite their dispproval, one has to acquiesce in. At times, Nature in order to test our mettle, presents us with so many options which are not only unsuitable but also irrelevant; even the we have to choose them in our life. Today, the same old story continues. Every century has been unleashing those channges which were entirely new as compared to the previous ones. Progress in natural science and technology has given superfluous matter to mankind that could be termed as trash of knowlege and economical activities. If nature blesses us with fruits, then it also delegates responsibilities to dispose litter properly. Otherwise , it only increases environmental pollution.

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