Earth Rio Summit :


It is the international summit convene by United Nations in Rio-De-Janerio back in 1992


Establishing a new and equitable global partnership through the creation of new levels of co-operation, among states, key sectors of society and people.

a) Rio Declaration of Environmental development.

b) Agenda -21 .

c) Convention on Biodiversity.

d) Un convention to combat desertification.

e) United Nations Framework on Climate Change.

Rio Declaration:

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the 'Earth Summit', was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 3-14 June 1992. The Earth Summit was the largest gathering of world leaders as of 1992, with 117 heads of state and representatives of 178 nations in all attending. It consist of 27 principles which are given as;


  1. Human role must be in compliance with the environmental needs.
  2. State sovereignty must not be violated or compromise.
  3. Each state has its right to development.
  4. Ensuring environmental protection during development process.
  5. Eradication of poverty.
  6. Financial assistance by the developed countries.
  7. Least developed countries shall be prioritized.
  8. State co-operation to protect the eco-system.
  9. Discouraging unsustainable pattern at the production level.
  10. Capacity building for sustainable development.
  11. Public participation.
  12. Youth mobilization.
  13. Women participation.
  14. National environmental institutions.
  15. Environmental impact assessment shall be introduced.
  16. Open dumping must be prevented.
  17. Role of indigenous people shall be improved.
  18. Early warning systems for disasters shall be installed.
  19. Compensation mechanism for environmental victim.
  20. Warfare must be discouraged.
  21. Peace, development and environmental protection.
  22. Internalization of environmental loss in the planning process.
  23. Supportive and open economic system shall be encouraged.
  24. Rights of people and under oppression shall be protected.
  25. Resolution of environmental disputes must be peaceful.
  26. Co-operation among people and state. 
  27. States shall resolve all their environmental disputes peacefully and by appropriate means in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

The Rio Summit Follow up: 

The Rio Summit was followed by several other Conferences to focus on ‘Sustainable Development’. These include conferences like the “Global Conference on Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States” in Barbados in 1994: “The World Summit on      Social Development” in Copenhagen in 1995: “The Fourth World Conference on      Women”, Beijing 1995; and the “Second UN Conference on Human Settlements,      Habitat II”, Istanbul in 1996.  The focus was on following the path of ‘Sustainable      Development’ in all countries in all parts of the ecosystem whether on land, water or air. The effort has also been an all-inclusive development that reaches all sections of the population with a special focus on the vulnerable sections like women, children or the marginalized. 

 A five-year review of the progress of the ‘Earth      Summit’ was held in 1997 by the United Nations General Assembly. This was followed by a ten-year review in 2002 by the World Summit on Sustainable      Development (WSSD). The WSSD was held in Johannesburg, South Africa. It urged the Nations to make progress in the formulation and implementation of strategies for sustainable development and to begin implementing them by 2005.

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