Industrial Revolution

Background :

  • Industries were first established in the 17th century (birth).
  • In 18th century industries were rising and it is an ongoing process.

Great Britian (London city) was the most attractive place of the world right after the industrial revolution people migrated towards London city for more and more opportunity. After London it expanded to Manchester and then after 20 to 30 years industrial revolution expanded all across the Europe.


                         It is a complete transformation in the ways or methods of production, from the traditional ways or methods to the scientific or modern ways of production.

Traditional ways :

  • Hand made production.
  • Tools were simpler.
  • Production capacity was not up to the mark.
  • No formal factory system was installed.
  • Variety of products were limited.


  • Change in ways of production.

Modern ways:

  • Handmade to machine.
  • Tools from simpler to complex.
  • Production capacity increased.
  • Formal factory system established.
  • Variety of products increased.

Causes of Industrial Revolution:

a) Human Quest:

It is a struggle or efforts of hundreds and thousands of years towards the betterment.

b) Human's intellectual development:

Human intellectual development leads to different inventions which are the scientific inventions. Later proved to be the rise of the human inventions. Demands realized us to think about the better ways of production.

c) Scientific innovations:

  • Inventions of steam engine.
  • Introduction of spinning machine.
  • Ginning machine.
  • Telegraphs

1. Positive effects of industrial revolution:

  • Social effect were positively influenced.
  • Economic effect were positively influenced.
  • Political effects were positively influenced.
  • Manufacturing effects were positively influenced.

After industrial revolution;

a) Employment creation.

b) per capita income increased.

c) Improved living standards.

d) Improved National Economy.

e) Rapid Industrialization.

  • Textile, chemical (bleaching powder).
  • Iron industry (rolling process to making products).
  • Revolution in Iron industry.
  • Fertilizer industry.

f) Improved means of communication.

  • Telegraphs.
  • Railways.
  • Vehicles.

g) Modern Agricultural Revolution.

  • Modern Irrigation system.
  • Drip irrigation.
  • Hybrid seeds.
  • Water availability increased.
  • Increase in production.
  • Food security.

h) Medical Revolution.

  • Production of medical or medicines from commercial items availability(plants).
  • Laser treatment.
  • Medical sector improved due to industrial revolution.

i) Capitalization.

j) Education Sector.

  • Education sector moved towards the practicality or innovation.
  • Towards the modernization.

k) Urbanization.

  • Cultural harmony, social transactions etc.

2. Negative Environmental effects of Industrial Revolution:

  • Increased Human interferences within the Earth system.
  • Fossil fuels.

                         Increase in usage of coal which lead different combustion of fossil fuel i.e CO2, CO,SO2etc. Further results in Air pollution , Water pollution and Land pollution.

  • Global warming due to green house gases. GHG's (global activities results in climate change).
  • Climate change.
  • Eutrophication.( due to industrial waste).
  • Bio diversity loss. (due to eutrophication, water pollution)
  • Paper industry.
  • Deforestation.
  • Over exploitation of natural resources.( use of coal, petrol, hydrocarbons for production  use).
  • Noise pollution.
  • Urbanization. (urbanization needs deforestation).

Modern Agriculture Revolution:


                         It is a transformation in the agriculture sector from traditional ways to the modern agriculture ways or methods.

a) Introduction of technology in Agriculture sector:

 Introduction of technology in agriculture sector such as robots, temperature and moisture sensors, aerial images and GPS technology which allows businesses to be more profitable and safer.

b) Introduction of agro-chemical:

 It includes pesticides, herbicides, fungicides or fertilizer used for the management of ecosystem in agricultural land.

c)Expansion in the agricultural land:

Conversion of non agricultural land into agricultural land in known as the expansion in the agricultural land i.e, wet land for the cultivation of rice and forest land for the cultivation of crops

d) The introduction of genetically modified seeds:

Genetically modified seeds include rice wheat and corn. In 1964, Pakistan used genetically modified seed from India, IR-8-rice, results in 5 times more yield than the previous one.

Benefits of Agricultural revolution:

  • Agricultural standard has been improved.
  • Increased productivity.
  • Introduction of the concept of crop-rotation.
  • Improved food security.
  • Emergence of Agricultural economies.

Negative effects of Agricultural revolution:

Negative effects of agricultural revolutions includes

  • increased in air pollution.
  • Increased in water pollution.
  • Increased in global warming.
  • Increased in eutrophication due to agricultural waste.
  • Increased in bio-diversity loss.
  • Increased in noise pollution.
  • Increased in deforestation.


                    Industrial and Agricultural revolution have contributed towards social, economic, political and cultural development of the world. But due to these revolution the intensity and frequency of the human interferences within the earth's system have increased, which further resulted into the instigation of multiple environmental challenges which the world is facing in the 21st century.

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