26 Mar

Question : Muslims Nation was led towards success through the socio-political visions Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah in South Asia. Discuss their  services rendered for the cause of Muslims Nationalism in the Sub-continent.

a) Role of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan in Pakistan Movement 

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was born in in 1817 in Delhi. After early education he joined East India company in 1835 as a sub clerk in the Court of law. In 1846, he was promoted to chief judge. During the war of independence (1857) he was in Bajnor Where he saved British Family putting himself to risk. Owing to this service Sir Syed was sked to work for government but he refused because he wanted to serve the Muslims.

b) Objectives of Aligarh :

  • Aligarh Movement was established to fulfill the following targets.
  • Loyalty towards British to remove the bitter enmity between them.
  • Aloofness from politics because Sir Syed wanted the Muslims to acquire political education first.
  • To persuade Muslims to acquire modern education.

c) Educational Services :

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established educational institute in 1859 in Moradabad. In 1862, he established Ghazipur School and in 1863 he established Vitoria School for the prosperity and progress of Muslims of the subcontinent.

In 1864, Sir Syed established scientific society for translation of English paper to Persian, Arabic and other languages which can be easily understandable by Muslims so that they can be aware of that political or economic situation of the Subcontinent.

d) Political Services of Aligarh :

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Advised the Muslims to stay away from politics until they get proper education of it. He was of the view that education is the only weapon to keep pace with model advancement.

i) Two Nation Theory :

He was no-doubt in the favor of Hindu-Muslim unity in the beginning but after Urdu-Hindi controversy he came to know the nature of Hindu nation. There for the first time he used the word nation for Muslims in 1867. So we can say that he was the founder of two-nation theory in sub continent.

ii) Quota in Services :

He started movement against the open competitive examinations for superior services. He also rejected the government of the majorities because that could lead to the monopoly of the Hindus in India.

iii) Advice to Avoid Politics :

After the War of 1857(war of independence), He advised the Muslims to stay away from politics until they would become strong in education. So that they could not be used by Hindu's for their purposes.

iv) Political Reforms :

He restrain the Muslims from joining Congress and Struggle for Special seat of the Muslims in local councils. He also started a movement against the open competitive exams to avoid the monopoly of the Hindus.

e) Iqbal's Political Life :

Allama Iqbal was elected as the member of Punjab's Legislative Assembly in 1926. During elections in 1937, Quaid e Azam started re construction of the Muslims League, Allama Iqbal was along with him. He always supported Quaid e Azam point of view.

f) Iqbal and Two Nation Theory :

Allama Iqbal firmly believe that the Muslims of India have a separate identity, to protect this identity the establishment of the separate nation is necessary. At his Presidential Address  in 1930, on the occasion of the annual session of Muslim League at Allahabad, He said

"Hindu-Muslims in the Sub-continent belonging to different race, speaking different language and posses different religions. Therefore, demand for the separate state for Muslims in the best interest of India and Islam."

g) Ideology of Pakistan and Iqbal :

Iqbal was strictly against the nationalism. He considered all the Muslims to be a part of one Ummah. For him, a Muslim whether he belongs to any part of the world is the part of brotherly relations. He considered nationalism to be a coffin for the Muslim Ummah.

h) Quaid e Azam and Ideology of Pakistan :

Quaid e Azam was the Liberator of the Muslim Nation in sub-continent. He struggled for the separate state on he basis of Islamic Ideology. He himself explained this basic ideology.

i) Foundation of Muslim Nation :

Once Quaid e Azam said.

"Pakistan came into being the very day when the first Hindu became a Muslim".

ii) Islam is a Complete Code of Life :

While addressing the students in March 1944 he said.

Our guide is Islam and this is the complete code of our life. We neither need any red or yellow flag nor do we need any socialism, communism or any other ism.

iii) Protection of Muslim culture :

Addressing the Army Officers in October 1947, the Quaid e Azam said,

Our object was to create such a state where we can live freely. Our culture and civilization get flourished and where Islamic concept of social justice flourish exactly.

iv) Separate status for the Muslim :

In his address at Lahore or March 23, 1940 it was clearly mentioned.

"No Act or Law would be acceptable which deny the separate status of the Muslims."

Conclusion :

It is concluded that the Quaid e Azam worked day and night for the establishment of separate nation for Muslims so that Muslims of the sub continent can freely offer their prayers Iqbal tried to awaken the Muslims of the India through philosophy, poetry and politics and also brought the idea of independence for the Muslims of India. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan also work for the prosperity of the Muslims of India. He is recognized as one of the founder of the Pakistan. Thus, all the great men's have contributed for the establishment of separate state.

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