16 Mar


The experience of Congress Rule compelled the Muslims to launch the movement for separate homeland. The Hindus made them realize that Hindu government would mean an anti-Muslim rule in India. The Muslims’ disappointment from the Congress leadership decided to open a new phase of history. Quaid-e-Azam’s article in Time and Tide concluded that Muslims are a nation. No Constitution can be enforced by ignoring Muslims. His comments on March 13, 1940 are remarkable:

“If some satisfactory settlement cannot be found for Muslims in united India, the Muslim will have to demand for division of the country.”

The Lahore Resolution

The Muslim League held its annual session at Lahore on 22-24 March 1940. The Lahore Resolution was moved by Maulvi Fazl ul Haq and seconded by Ch. Khaliq uz zaman that finally approved on March 24, 1940. Jinnah rightly expressed his valuable remarks about the political circumstances of India and the Muslims stand. He said:

“Indian problem is not communal but international. No Constitution can work without recognizing this reality. Muslims of India will not accept a constitution that establishes a government of the Hindu majority on them. If Hindus and Muslims are placed under one democratic system, this would mean Hindu Raj.”

Text of the Resolution :

  • They decided that the Federal system under Government of India Act, 1935 was not acceptable for the Muslims.
  • No revised constitutional plan would be acceptable unless it was framed with their approval and consent.
  • Adjacent units where Muslims are in a majority, as in Northwest and East, should be constituted as Independent States where the constituent units will be autonomous and sovereign.
  • Protection of minorities would be given priority.

Reaction of Muslims to the Pakistan Resolution

The Muslims responded to the Resolution with amazement and hope for better future. They gathered under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam who gave meaning and shape to their quest for independence. With the passage of Pakistan Resolution the Muslims began to acquire new hope and confidence in their destiny. 

The Resolution infused high spirits among the Muslims who were now determined to fight to the last end for the accomplishment of Pakistan. The Muslims were convinced that there was no other solution of the Indian problems except the creation of two separate and sovereign states of Hindustan and Pakistan. They demanded Pakistan because they were not accepted by the Hindus to live with them in peace in spite of their efforts and wishes. The Muslims were tormented by the fear that being Muslims they would not be acceptable to Hindu majority in the united India. Pakistan, therefore, was not demanded on the basis of hatred for the Hindus but for the safeguard of the Muslim civilization and culture.

Hindu Reaction to the Pakistan Resolution

The Hindu reaction to the Pakistan Resolution was hostile. The Hindu leaders condemned it and referred to the partition as vivisection of mother India. The Hindu leaders tried to build up agitation against the partition. Gandhi called it a moral wrong and a sin to which he would never be a party. The Hindu Press came out with the most aggressive propaganda against the resolution and declared it as a conspiracy against the unity of country.

Significance :

The Pakistan Resolution is a landmark in the history of the Muslim India as it eventually decided the future of the sub-continent. The attitude of the Hindus and Congress had intensified Muslim’s apprehensions, who feared Hindu subjugation. They were convinced that their future as a Nation was not secure in the united India and, therefore, decided to demand a separate homeland.

This Resolution did not specify any demarcation of the territory but it defined the future plan of struggle for the establishment of the Muslims states (later the word ‘states’ was replaced by ‘state’ in 1946) in the Northwestern and Eastern areas where the Muslims were in overwhelming majority. It also intended to give importance to the autonomy of the states. There was no use of the word Pakistan but Pakistan was kernel of the Resolution.

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