02 Oct

Introduction :

He is considered a very prominent American political thinker of modern age. His essay on The End of History? In 1989 projects his visionary speculations in terms of international politics. The contents of his scholarship have a whole range of implication thereby. These are noted below with respect implications.

In his 1989 article, The End of History?" Francis Fukuyama raised a storm of controversy. The End of History and the Last Man is the author's response. His thesis is simple. The failure of communism and the disappearance of the Soviet Union has resulted  in the victory of liberal democracy and capitalism. There are, he claims, no more challengers. Security and freedom have been achieved , and consequently history had ended.

 The End of History and the Last Man ignores the confusing events and details of most history and is more philosophical, even technological, in its orientation. The author states that only liberal democracy and the market economy have satisfactorily provided what Plato claimed to be necessary for happiness: the appetitive (food and sex), the reasoning (knowledge and truth) and the need to be recognized as human. Hegel's concept of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis explained the process of history, with liberal democracy as the final synthesis according to Fukuyama. Marx, like Hegel, saw the world in a clash of evolving opposites, but while Marx predicted that the triumph of communism would lead to the withering away of the state, Fukuyama instead argues that with the victory of liberal democracy it is history that has died. 

The True Meaning Of The End Of History :

The continuation of the (s0- called) Cold War which lasted more than four decades incorporates rivalry between ideologies and two geopolitical blocs. After a series of limited war, proxy war, policies and crisis, the war was ended by the collapse of Berlin Wall and Soviet Union as well. The incident was in favour of the United States of America. It emerged as the first ever hyper power of the world. That's the only example of the world where a country emerged as the singular hegemony. Fukuyama was very much influenced by this event and cited the end of Cold War as the "End of History". By this he actually meant the end of the history of animosity, completion, conflict and other relevant terms. Therefore, the very first implication of his political thought could be his attempt of drawing and end of history of conflict.

Identifying The End of History :

Along with the end of history, Fukuyama also figured the beginning of history through his political thoughts. According to him, from its very beginning history includes saga of struggle. In  his two volume work on The Origins of Political Order" he tells that virtually humanity was composed by tribes. It then gradually evolved into organized political communities.  The formation of "Banga' state under Mahashamanta Shashanka is ancient Indian subcontinent is an example to that. He united all tribes and formed this. The final product of such transformation is born in human society. Because at a state, political institutions such as executive, legislature, and political state. Thus, an authority was first established in a given territory. Political order was judiciary functions systematically to maintain law and order within their territory. Political order was born in human society. Because at a state, political institutions such as executive, legislature, and judiciary functions systematically to maintain law and order within their territory of authority. The rule of law and political accountability are very important for establishing political order.

Rise of Unchallengeable Power :

Fukuyama's political thoughts relate to the origin of political with the origin of inter-state conflict. Because the manifestation of power play is only possible within state system. It generates Balance of Power. At this point a state can challenge another with equal power. As a result, the one who has more power, dominates over others. Like this, the history continues with struggle of power. This history ends with the rise of an unchallengeable power. In his view, the United States of America is that unchallengeable power. Rather than Marxist view on end of history with communism displacing capitalism, Fukuyama perceived liberal democracy as the milestone.

Rise of the United States of America as an Unchallengeable Power :

Fukuyama thought that Western liberal democracy may signal the end point of humanity's socio-cultural evolution and the final form of human government. He argued that the legitimacy of liberal democracy as a system of government had emerged throughout the world over the past few years. It conquered rival ideologies like monarchy, fascism, and communism. Thus, he believed that liberal democracy may constitute the "end point of mankind's ideological evolution" and constituted the "end of history." He characterized earlier forms of government as irrationals. Again, their irrationality led to their eventual collapse. But liberal democracy was arguably free from such fundamental internal contradictions. Thus, displacing capitalism, the United States of America will remain a hyper power for a long time. This is another aspect of his thoughts. Therefore, the lack of challenger to the United States of America ends the history.

According to Fukuyama, historically, for a long time, hostility existed among powerful states. It includes most states of Europe. Europe was a core of power struggle before world wars. To have power over other, they were involved in competition which leads to conflict. That's why, we see in the time of British monarch, France has always been her completion. In British territorial expansion, a completion always existed with France and many others. 

The Side- effect :

The most important implication of Fukuyama's thoughts opens up the situation without any challenger in international politics. China is just a rising power compared to the United States of America. Because, rationally, a challenger is needed in this world to maintain Balance of Power. Otherwise, there will be no stability in this world. As a hyper power, the United States of America can do any that it wants for its national interest. For example, the equal existence of USSR in Cold War period helped to safeguard the interest of Communist and allied countries in the international arena where the United States of America could not intervene. But now the United States of America can even adopt hypocrisy to establish its foreign policy overseas. 

The Challenges :

In his essay, he argued that Islam has little intellectual or emotional appeal outside the Islamic 'heartlands'. Strong Islamic countries like Iran or Saudi Arabia will adopt democracies or will disintegrate as they are having political problem. He also claimed that Islamic states are easy to be dominated by Western states, At this point the United States of America did not have anything to worry from the Islamic world. But he absolutely did not account the factor of Islamic Fundamentalism as a counter-force to the spread of liberal democracy. That's why, none can tell that post-Cold War era will be free from struggle. At this point Fukuyama's thoughts are challengeable.
The peaceful continuation of the United States of America as a hyper power is also challengeable by rising powers like China, India, Iran, Germany, Brazil and present Russia Collectively they are posing a challenge over the supremacy of the United States of America over them and the rest of the world. Thus, it's clear that the desire of other states of becoming regional or global power has not ended with the end of Cold War.

Conclusion :

Fukuyama's stand on end of history is a highly criticized thought of international relations. His surrender of supremacy towards the United States of America is doubted and countered by many. In some extends his thoughts are very much controversial as he ignores any possibility of further political crisis on earth. Because nothing is static in this world as long as many countries on this world (especially rogue states) possesses nuclear weapon. Thus, in some cases, rather than Fukuyama, his critiques explain realties of the world more effectively and impartially.

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