30 Jun

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is a Eurasian political, economic, international security and defense organization. It is the world's largest regional organization in terms of geographic scope and population, covering approximately 60% of the area of Eurasia, 40% of the world population. Its combined GDP is around 20% of global GDP.

The SCO is the successor to the Shanghai Five, formed in 1996 between the People's Republic of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Tajikistan. On 15 June 2001, the leaders of these nations and Uzbekistan met in Shanghai to announce a new organization with deeper political and economic cooperation; the SCO Charter was signed on 7 July 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003. Its membership has since expanded to eight states, with India and Pakistan joining on 9 June 2017. Several countries are engaged as observers or dialogue partners.

The SCO is governed by the Heads of State Council (HSC), its supreme decision-making body, which meets once a year.

NATO  western alliance.

Sensitivity with west.

NATO expanding towards east.

NATO containment policy with China.

Created a sensitivity and political insecurity for Russia.

SCO  eastern alliance.

The Shanghai Five:

The Shanghai Five group was created on 26 April 1996 with the signing of the Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions in Shanghai by the heads of states of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan.

On 24 April 1997 the same countries signed the Treaty on Reduction of Military Forces in Border Regions in a meeting in Moscow, Russia. On 20 May 1997 Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Chinese President Jiang Zemin signed a declaration on a "multipolar world". Russian President Vladimir Putin, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Chinese President Jiang Zemin, Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev, and Tajik President Emomali Rahman, at one time the leaders of the Shanghai Five.

Subsequent annual summits of the Shanghai Five group occurred in Almaty, Kazakhstan in 1998, in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan in 1999, and in Dushanbe, Tajikistan in 2000. At the Dushanbe summit, members agreed to "oppose intervention in other countries' internal affairs on the reason of 'humanitarianism' and 'protecting human rights;' and support the efforts of one another in safeguarding the five countries' national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, and social stability." The Shanghai Five structure helped speed up the members' resolution of border disputes, agree on military deployments in border areas, and address security threats.

SCO and Pakistan :

Benefits of SCO for Pakistan :

Economic Advantages :

Central Asian Republic.

Metallic and non metallic ores, Gypsum and Limestone ==> Industrial development.

Deposits of Natural gas and ==> Energy Sector CASA 1000 Tapi pipeline.

Russia :

Russia is the largest producer of Natural gas. A big energy sector suitable for Pakistan growth.

China :

Modularize with respect to CPEC 2.0.

Foreign direct investment and CPEC.


SCO institution RATS.

Regional anti-terrorism structure (RATS).

To fight against three evils. (3-exits).

  1. Terrorism.
  2. Separation.
  3. Extremism.

Joint military exercise ( PAT Russia/Pakistan).

Capacity Building.

Intelligence share.

Normalize Political and Diplomatic Relations :

India ======SAARC Dispute====>>> Alternative Platform.

Benefits of SCO from Pakistan :

  • Security :

Pakistan, India, Iran -----> South Asia.

  • Afghanistan shares larger borders with Pakistan :

East Turkmenistan Islamic border (ETIM).

Islamic movement of Uzbekistan (IMU).

Geological placement :

CARs (landlock).

Russia (Access to warm water).

China ( short and undisputed route).

Challenges of SCO :

OFF-setting USA and NATO in the region because of strategic policies of Russia.

Security issues :

  1. Extremism(Rats)
  2. Separatism(Rats)
  3. Terrorism(Rats)

Leadership role of China and Russia :

China (geo-economic ) Ideology.

Russia (geo-strategic) ideology.

India and Pakistan :

Water protection.

Violation of LOC.

Kashmir problem.

Purpose of SCO :

Strengthening and safe guard regional security and to promote the common development of the member states.

Achievements of SCO:

SCO has reached out to not only to other countries but also to other multilateral organization.

UN granted it as observer state in general assembly in 2004.

A number of events and agreements in 2006 and 2007 indicate a cautious development of SCO to a full grow security organization.

In July 2007, SCO energy club was established with which SCO may aim for a common energy approach.

Provide a cooperative forum for consultations, which has allowed both smaller and bigger member to balance their national interest and power in geographic Area.

Meeting of SCO:

The SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization) has meetings where leaders and important people from member countries get together. They talk about how they can work together better. They discuss things like safety, stopping terrorism, helping each other with money, and sharing cultures. These meetings happen at different times and places. They talk about what's important at the moment. If you want to know about a specific meeting, you can check the SCO's website or the news to find out when and where it's happening and what they're talking about.

SCO Secretary General:

 The SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization) Secretary-General is like the boss of the organization. They make sure everything runs smoothly and help countries work together. Their job is to organize meetings and activities and make sure everyone gets along. The Secretary-General is an important leader who helps countries understand each other and cooperate better.

Dialogue partner status:

"Dialogue partner status" means that a country or organization isn't officially part of a group like the SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization), but they still have a special relationship with it. They're allowed to join discussions and activities of the SCO, even though they're not full members.

These dialogue partners can talk, share ideas, and sometimes work on projects with the SCO's member countries. They're usually interested in the region and issues that matter to the SCO, like security, trade, and culture.

Countries or organizations with dialogue partner status might want to get closer to the SCO and might become full members in the future.


In conclusion , the SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization) brings countries together to deal with shared problems. They talk about things like safety, money, and culture. Even countries that aren't full members can join in discussions to help out. As the SCO grows, working together and understanding each other remains key for making progress in the region.

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