28 May

Introduction :

  • Industrialization in the developing world started in the 1980s on the other hand west got industrialized back in the 19th century. Therefore, the West is the major carbon burner and is more responsible for environmental pollution.
  • Economies of the West have already been saturated, while on the other hand the progress of the developing world has just begun.
  • The developed world has alternative energy resources, but the developing world doesn't have enough alternative energy resources. If they make Carbon cut in the resources, it will be a huge set back to these nations. Therefore, the developed world must make Carbon cuts first and give enough time to the developing countries to shift on clean energy and make carbon cuts.


This divide between the developing and the developed countries started since the first COP and existed in major conferences whether Kyoto or Montreal protocol, Rio, Mumbai, Copenhagen protocol, until Paris Climate agreement.


  • The first ever agreement on which both the developed and developing countries agreed on making carbon cuts - this was a major achievement of COP21. On the platform of Paris Agreement both the sides (developing and developed countries) agreed to the carbon cut off plan i.e., by 2030 the world temperature must reduce by 2 degree Centigrade which was later on reduced to 1.5 degree centigrade. 
  • This served also as a binding document.


All the climate experts showed the concern that the target set by 2030 to reduce Carbon emissions and temperature reduction wouldn't be achieved, the reason is that the majority emitters like UK, China, India and US did not reduce their Carbon emissions. Therefore, the climate target pitched for 2030 is nothing but an elusive dream.

COP 27:

Countries reached a historic decision to establish and operationalize a loss and damage fund, particularly for nations most vulnerable to the climate crisis. 

Climate finance was, as expected, a key part of COP27. The final agreement highlights that "US$4 to $6 trillion a year needs to be invested in renewable energy until 2030 - including investments in technology and infrastructure - to allow us to reach net-zero emissions by 2050".


The fluctuating behavior of the US primarily responsible for the failures of reducing Carbon emission at the Global level.

  • In 1997 the Clinton administration signed the Kyoto protocol in Japan. In 2002, Bush Junior pulled the US out of the Kyoto protocol. 
  • The Bush Regime decided not to lead the idea of the Carbon cut globally. Hence, the US continued her carbon emission track.
  • When Obama came into power, he out rightly changed the climate policies of the USA. Following changes were made.
  1. He declared climate change the major threat to US security.
  2. Promoting the Carbon free energy as source of energy. Energy shifts like solar, wind, tidal, etc.
  3. Led the world in efforts for climate change.
  • The US under Obama played a major role in convincing China, India, Brazil esp. John Kerry to carbon cut off which agreed ultimately and gave their respective carbon cut off plans.

*In 2017, Trump pulled out of the US from COP21 just like party predecessor Bush Jr.

  • He believed that climate change is a myth. The rise in the world temperature is not because of carbon emissions but because of natural cycles.
  • The achievements against Carbon emissions made by the US internationally were a setback for all the efforts of the USA.
  • Joe Biden is trying his best to revive the Climate policies of the US but the 4-year tenure of the Trump administration still did a great deal of damage via his anti-climactic policies.
  • The US did not lead the world from the front against climate change. This is irresponsible behavior on their part.


  • The Changed behavior especially of China regarding climate change. Before 2015 China's stance was
  1. The developing world must make carbon cuts first and be given enough time to switch to carbon alternatives 
  2. But under Xi Jinping, the policies changed out rightly and China is increasingly becoming global e.g. BRI project. Therefore, China has started demonstrating global responsibilities too.

China's efforts :

1. Increasing shift to Carbon free energy (Internally shifting to Carbon free energy, promoting carbon cut) through

  •  excessive construction of dams
  • excessive focus on solar wind energy focusing on civil nuclear technology

2. Globally leading the world against the anti-climactic stances, convincing and helping other countries in order to make carbon shifts

3. BRI Takeaways for Carbon Free energy "providing loans to countries to shift on carbon free energy

4. China became a signatory of Paris Climate Change

5. Like other countries, China is slowly reducing its Carbon emissions. China is the leading coal burner of the world, second comes the US.


The reason for the slow reduction in carbon cut off is carbon trading. This phenomenon was introduced in 2002.


  • In 1997, Kyoto protocol, every country was allotted a carbon quota. The major emitters were advised not to emit more carbon gases than their allotted carbon quota.
  • But in 2002, a novel idea was introduced by the UK that was readily adopted by all the major emitters i.e purchasing carbon quota from the lesser emitters. Resultantly, the effort to reduce Carbon gases emission failed.
  • But on the platform of Paris Climate Agreement, it was decided that the sale and purchase of Carbon gases must stop by 2021.(Carbon quota purchase will be halted)
  • But the major emitters China, US UK and India continued their Carbon quota purchase which was the cause of an unmet goal regarding Carbon Trade 2021.


But the major emitters China, US UK and India continued their Carbon quota purchase which was the cause of the unmet goal of Carbon Trade.

Another major effort for the Green Globe is plantation

On every major conference Kyoto, Rio, Montreal, Copenhagen, Mumbai etc. preservation of existing forests always remained a priority. e.g. preserving Amazon, African, Mexican, Australian forests.

COP 16 (2010) Copenhagen; Denmark :

It was decided that two new forests be planted: one in Brazil the other in Indonesia.

Paris Climate change :

  • Bonn Challenge. Climate conference held 
  • Every country was given a challenge to plant more and more trees which is met completely by Pakistan and Argentina, partially met by Indonesia, India and China.
  • With the proportional increase in Climate emission, the plantation wasn't done. Plants are the Carbon Eaters.
  • COP26 stance- The world didn't meet the plantation target which one of the reasons for the slow reduction of the world temperature.
  • In 1997 Kyoto protocol Japan carbon quota was allotted to every country in the world.
  • All countries were advised not to emit more carbon gases than their allotted carbon quota.
  • But in 2002 a novel idea was presented by the UK that was adopted by all major emitters, i.e. purchasing a carbon quota. Major emitters started buying carbon quota from the lesser emitters.
  • Resultantly, the effort to reduce carbon emissions failed as carbon quotas trading started.
  • By 2021 carbon gases quota selling will stop. This was to be a big achievement of the Paris agreement. But the US, China and India (top 3 major emitters) have continued to purchase carbon emission quotas. Resultantly the target of 2030 (at Glasgow) seems to be in danger.
  • A major effort is 'plantation' Every conference whether at Kyoto, Montreal, Mumbai - wherever it took place major commitment was preservation of the existing forests Amazon, Mexican, Australian, African forests etc.
  • In 2010 at Copenhagen, it was decided that 2 new forests would be planted, one in Brazil, the other in Indonesia.
  • In the Paris climate agreement at Bonn 
  • Partially met by China, India, Indonesia, etcetera Plantation increase did not grow in proportion with increase in carbon gases.
  • At the platform of Paris Climate Agreement, 23 different MNCs gave a cut off plan for Carbon. So, a carbon cut off plan was given not just by my countries but also by Multinational Companies. This includes the following big companies :
  • Pepsi cola
  • Coca Cola
  • Lever brothers
  •  Exxon mobile
  •  Shell
  •  Aramco, etc.

But none of the companies met the target. Resultingly 2030's target seems like an elusive dream.

The Ray of Hope - international Efforts Against Climate Change :

1. Trump is gone, the US has reaffirmed its commitment against the emission of carbon gases: it will reduce production and lead the initiative on an international level.

2. The Clean Green Europe project: The European world made an agreement with each other that Europe will be carbon free by 2050 – there will be 0% carbon emission from Europe.

3. China has decided to play a leading role in the anti-climate changes efforts.

  1. One of the major investments under BRI is on carbon free projects 
  2. China is providing soft loans to countries to shift towards carbon free energy
  3. China decided not to finance any coal projects internally or externally (Specifically announced by Xi Jinping)

4. COP 27 a loss and damage fund, particularly for nations most vulnerable to the climate crisis.

Pakistan's' Efforts :

1. Plantation 

  • From 2014-2018 billion tree tsunami by KP govt. Billion tree project successfully executed by KP government 
  • 10 million trees project by Federal govt successfully executed
  • 1.5 million trees has been successfully planted target is 20 million trees 2021 
  • By 2030 Pakistan has met the plantation target. Compared to the entire South Asia, Pakistan has done the most plantations. If we meet the target of planting 10 billion trees, we will meet the target of 2060

2. Shift to carbon free energy - Clean Energy

  • Shift on hydroelectric projects 
  • 4500 MW wind projects will be installed that will be 15-18 % of the demand 
  • More than 10% of electricity demand will be met through civil nuclear technology
  • 8-10 % of electricity will be generated through solar energy sources
  • To reach the target, Pakistan aims to shift to 60% renewable energy, and 30% electric vehicles by 2030 and ban coal imports as well as expand nature-based solutions. The updated NDC has also added new sectors and new gases for enhanced contributions.
  • Pakistan intends to set a cumulative ambitious conditional target of an overall 50% reduction of its projected emissions by 2030, with a 15% reduction from the country's own resources and a 35% reduction subjected to the provision of international grant finance.


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